II.       Lesbian and Gay Family Issues Involving Child Custody, Visitation, Adoption, and Foster Care

 

            A.        By Lesbian and Gay Biological Parents

 

                        1.         Disputes Between Biological Parents Involving Initial Determinations of Custody Where One Parent is Lesbian or Gay and the Other is Not

DiStefano v. DiStefano, New York Supreme Court, Appellate Division, 1978

                                    Jacobson v. Jacobson, North Dakota Supreme Court, 1981

                                    Thigpen v. Carpenter, Arkansas Court of Appeals, 1987

                                    Piatt v. Piatt, Virginia Court of Appeals, 1998

 

                        2.         Disputes Between Biological Parents Involving Change of Custody Where One Parent is Lesbian or Gay and the Other is Not

                                    Stroman v. Williams, South Carolina Court of Appeals, 1987

                                    J.B.F. v. J.M.F., Alabama Court of Civil Appeals, 1997

                                    Ex Parte J.M.F., Alabama Supreme Court, 1998

                                    Weigand v. Houghton, Mississippi Supreme Court, 1999

 

                        3.         Custody Disputes Between Lesbian or Gay Biological Parents and Nonparents

                                    Doe v. Doe, Virginia Supreme Court, 1981

                                    Bottoms v. Bottoms, Virginia Supreme Court, 1995

 

                        4.         Visitation Disputes Between Biological Parents Where One Parent is Lesbian or Gay and the Other is Not

                                    Marriage of Cabalquinto, Washington Supreme Court, 1983

                                    Chicoine v. Chicoine, South Dakota Supreme Court, 1992

                                    Ex Parte D.W.W., Alabama Supreme Court, 1998

 

                        5.         Visitation Disputes Between Biological Parents Who Both are Lesbian or Gay

Thomas S. v. Robin Y., New York Supreme Court, Appellate Division, 1994

                                    LaChapelle v. Mitten, Minnesota Court of Appeals, 2000

 

                        6.         Disputes Between Biological Parents Involving Disclosure of Parent’s Homosexuality to Their Minor Children

                                    Marriage of Kraft, Iowa Court of Appeals, 2000

 

                        7.         Disputes of Same-Sex Couples over Parentage

                                     K.M. v. E.G., California Supreme Court, 2005

 

            B.        By the Domestic Partners of Lesbian and Gay Biological Parents

 

                        1.         Custody

                                    Curiale v. Reagan, California Court of Appeal, 1990

                                    LaChapelle v. Mitten, Minnesota Court of Appeals, 2000

                                    Miller-Jenkins v. Miller-Jenkins, Court of Appeals of Virginia, 2006

                                    In the Matter of Brooke S.B. v Elizabeth A.C.C., New York Court of Appeals, 2016

 

                        2.         Visitation

                                    Custody of H.S.H.-K., Wisconsin Supreme Court, 1995

                                    E.N.O. v. L.M.M., Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court, 1999

                                    Jones v. Barlow, Utah Supreme Court, 2007

 

                        3.         Adoption

                                    Adoption of Tammy, Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court, 1993

                                    Angel Lace M. v. Terry M., Wisconsin Supreme Court, 1994

                                    Matter of Jacob, New York Court of Appeals, 1995

                                    Boseman v. Jarrell, North Carolina Supreme Court, 2010

                                    Adar v. Smith, U.S. Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit, 2011

 

            C.        By Lesbians and Gay Men Who Are Biologically Related to the Children But Not as Parents

 

                        1.         Custody

State ex rel. Human Services Department, New Mexico Court of Appeals, 1988

 

            D.        By Lesbians and Gay Men Who Are “Strangers” (i.e., Not Biologically Related to the Children, Nor Partnered with Their Biological Parents)

 

                        1.         Adoption

                                    Adoption of Charles B., Ohio Supreme Court, 1990

Lofton v. Secretary of the Department of Children and Family Services, U.S. Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit, 2004

                                    Florida Department of Children and Families v. In re: Matter of Adoption of

                                     X.X.G. and N.R.G., Court of Appeal of Florida, Third District, 2010

 

                        2.         Foster Care

                                    Welfare of G.A.S., Minnesota Court of Appeals, 1998

                                    Department of Human Services v. Howard, Supreme Court of Arkansas, 2006